The water wells and equipment of them with a well-submersible pump are to access the water resources in underground aquifers. These operations contain drilling wells, wiring, installing wells and intubation pumps and, in general, using groundwater potential.
Water well drilling operations can be done manually or mechanically. Submersible water wells pumps have a much higher efficiency in the discharge process, and the depth of drilling of wells is also higher. Now, in our country the drilling and equipping of wells and the installation of a well-submersible pumps cause serious damage to the environment , due to a serious lack of groundwater resources, and the study of underground aquifers and water management is one of the most important issues in our country.
Water well drilling
The first stage after the identification and determination of the location of well water, is well drilling. Water well drilling operations are very important because of the many dangers for humans, as well as the damage that may be caused to the environment.
Water well drilling operations are done manually by manpower or by drilling machines. Often, deep well drilling is performed mechanically and by drilling machines. When drilling is done, these machines install pipe wells according to the amount of water and the height of the well. The tube is mostly in sizes 8 inches to 12inches and has small holes in its body. These holes are installed for water conveyance and to a great prevent the crossing of ballast and sand into the water wells shaft.
In a well water drill in a traditional way by manpower, the diameter of the collar is much larger than the mechanical method and about 80-120 cm. In this method, in addition to drilling water wells vertically, a number of furnaces or the same storage is drilled horizontally and in the direction of underground aquifers. In this method, the Cole (Cebel) is used for internal water wells partition. Almost the Cole operation in a sewage absorbing well is similar to a well.
Comparison of mechanical and manual methods in water well drilling
The mechanical method of water well drilling is often used in deep wells with depths above 41m.The main advantage of this method is the extraction of water wells and the low amount of floating sand and ballast in the water. Also, drilling operations will be faster and less risky for humans.
In comparison, the wells are drilled in a traditional way at depths below 41 m. These wells have lower water depths due to their low depth. The presence of sand snd ballast particles in the outlet of such wells is one of the other problems.
Because traditional wells are drilled by human resources, so there are many dangers to labor forces who drilled these wells.
A large number of human casualties and injuries have also been reported. But the main advantage of water well drilling is manual maintenance, protection and maintenance of groundwater resources. In both ways, a well submersible pump can be used to equip the well.
Equipping wells and water well submersible pump
Equipping well or deep wells is done by submersible or shaft pumps. Pumping operations in the well takes place after digging the well and reaching the groundwater. It should be kept in mind that the submersible pump well must be completely immersed in water, in this way the electromotor is cooled by water. But the engine of the shaft and engines is located on the well and in the open air and only the pump is in the water.
With the start of a well-submersible pump, the pipes in the wells are gradually filled with water and the pump pressure rises. The air which is inside the pipes goes out by the automatic valve and the water reaches the surface. At this stage, the operating point of the pump is regulated by the control valves and the water is transmitted for consumption.
When the submersible pump gets off, the water column on the engine can cause a water hammer. The goal is to put the valve at the pump outlet to prevent pressure on the motor impellers.
The kinds of submersible water well
The technology of manufacturing a well submersible pump has more advantages than the old systems due to the submergence of the pump and electro motors in the water.
The submersible pump is the opposite of the shaft and sheath pump and, Oil leakage will not flow into the water. Today, a variety of wells for drinking and industrial water supply are produced and produced. The most important points in choosing submersible pump are as follows:
1- Selecting the best level of operation of the floating (submersible) pump in terms of discharge and pressure.
2- Estimation of the amount of entering the well sand and ballast and the possibility of wearing (abrasion) the propeller and its equipment.
3- Select the material of the submersible pump according to salinity, pH and water well temperature.
4- Designing of the electric control system, for example, start-up, stop and earth connection for a well-submersible pump.
5. Choosing the most cost-effective cable for a submersible wells according to the depth of them.
Faucet and equipment of water wells
After installing a submersible and intended pump, the water reaches the surface of the earth, and at this stage it must be controlled by the mechanical and electrical equipment. Doing this process needed to install the pressure regulating valve, the air drain valve and one-way valve on the water outlet from the water well. These valves are responsible for controlling the flow rate and the pressure required by the well pump float. The most important electromechanical equipment installed in the water wells includes flowmeter and counter. This is an important tool in controlling the amount of groundwater resources taken by a submersible pump.
Environmental Issues in Water Well Drilling
Our beloved Iran is rich in energy, minerals, precious metals, and talents of agriculture and natural resources.
We can probably say that the only natural resource that is very low in our country is water. Water is the most important and indispensable resource for the survival of any human society.
The continuation of the growth of industries, agriculture and life of Iran's ecosystem is due to the management of this limited natural resource.
Iran is the second most dry country in the Middle East after the Libya. It is clear that the proper use of water resources and water treatment methods is one of the priorities of government in Iran.
Meanwhile, the most important water resources that have been consumed over time in recent years are the groundwater resources of the country.
Iran lost about 70 to 80 percent of its groundwater resources, which had been succeeded over the years by the faithful management and guidance of its ancestors.
The drying of almost all the Central Iranian Plateau ducts and flumes have witnessed the claim that incorrect management of water resources has led to a sharp decline in groundwater levels.
Several drilling of water wells, and the change and increase in the size of the wells regardless of underground aquifers are one of the most important factors for the emergence the conditions of these days. The use of groundwater resources is a way of using the vital water source, which, regardless of the principles and conditions of engineering, can bring environmental damage seriously and irreparable.