Industrial water purification for pure water production is used in various industries and in ways such as reverse osmosis RO, water softening, ion exchange and mixed bed. Industrial water purification methods are divided into three groups of membrane methods, ion exchange methods and thermal methods, the most common type of which is reverse osmosis.
Industrial water purification is used in various industries such as drinking, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, dairy, food and mines, and its main purpose is to reduce salinity, salts, contamination and other factors from water. Due to the type of process and methods of industrial water purification, each device has its own characteristics and advantages. In terms of three price indexes, ease of operation and salinity removal efficiency, reverse osmosis is the most optimal package in this field.
Water is one of the most widely used industrial raw materials. Water is used in many industries because of its high thermal capacity as heat transfer material. Water can also play a cooling, lubricating or diluent role in many industries.
Accordingly, many industrial water purification devices are used to improve the quality of final products in the industry. In a general division, industrial water purification methods can be divided into membrane, ion exchange and heat exchange methods. Membrane methods, based on the molecular size of particles, remove them from water, and the most commonly used methods are reverse osmosis. In ionic exchange methods, ion exchange resins can be exchanged for water and produce pure water. In thermal methods known as distillation, it turns from liquid to vapor by heating the water and then produces very pure water by cooling the steam.
The classification of an industrial water purifier is based on its applications. Since the main purpose is to remove solutes, hardness and electrical conductivity, they can be classified according to the amount of salinity removal ability.
The most common type of industrial water purifier is the reverse osmosis membrane method. The reverse osmosis method is very common today due to its ease of use and cost, and most importantly because of the high quality of the refined water, and is used in many industries.
The basis of reverse osmosis is the use of semipermeable membranes. Because of the smaller size of the nanometer, these membranes merely pass through the water molecules and isolate all the solutes and bacteria and organisms. Other membrane industrial water purification methods include ultrafiltration, Nano filtration and microfiltration.
Water softening is the simplest form of industrial water purifier by ion exchange method. Application of this device in removing temporary hardness. The basis of the water softening device is the exchange or transfer of sodium ion in the resin core with calcium and magnesium in the water. The resin in the industrial water purifier after a while has to be regenerate. Ion exchange is a method in industrial water purification, which absorbs the kidneys of water soluble in a mixture of anionic and cationic resins with OH and H. This method is used to produce excellent water quality and demineralized water. Usually, after the reverse osmosis, the "mixed bed" system is used to remove the remaining salts and remaining salinity.
Other methods of industrial water purification include the use of electric current in the Electro Dialysis Reversal (EDR). This method is based on the electrical conductivity of the water and is separated from the water by semi-permeable plates, water soluble containing anion and cation in the industrial sweetener.
The use of distillation is another of the applications of industrial water treatment by thermal method, which is used for the production of water of high quality for industries or pharmaceutical use. The distillation process is very costly and energy-intensive due to changes in water from liquid to gas (vapor). Industrial water purification is used in distillation in large marine projects, called MED (Multi Effect Distillation).
The comparison of industrial water purification methods in three parts is based on estimating the price of the industrial water purifier, the ease of operation, the efficiency of salinity removal and the TDS. As stated, each of these devices is designed for a variety of uses and in different ways, but in a general sense, the goal of making industrial water treatment can be to eliminate salinity, hardness and water pollution. On this basis, it can be said that the least expensive method is to use water softening, while this method simply removes the hardness of the water. In general, the optimal method of industrial water treatment is the use of reverse osmosis (RO), because it is highly capable in terms of the price of industrial water purification, utilization, and salinity removal efficiency. The following table shows the comparison of various industrial water purification methods:
|Industrial water treatment method||Industrial water purification prices||Using||Salinity elimination efficiency||Limitations|
|Water softener||Very low||Easy||Very low||It only removes the temporary hardness of the water|
|Ion exchange mixed bed||High||Difficult||Very high||Inlet water salinity cannot be high. Not applicable in seawater|
|EDR ion exchange||High||Difficult||High||Inlet water salinity cannot be high|
|RO Reverse Osmosis||Average||Relatively easy||High||To produce very pure water is not used|
|Ultrafiltration UF||Relatively high||Difficult||Very low||It only applies to the removal of contamination and turbidity and does not reduce the salinity much|
|Distillation method MED||Very high||Difficult||Very high||Small and medium capacity is not used|
Today, no industrial can be made without industrial water treatment. In addition, the decline in annual rainfall in our country, the subsequent droughts and increased saltiness of groundwater, as well as pollution of water resources by various pollutants, have greatly expanded the use of industrial and drinking water purification. This method is used in many steel mills, mines, petrochemicals, small and medium industries, food industries, agriculture, fish farming, animal husbandry, as well as residential and drinking water.
In the food and dairy industry, water is used as a detergent for tanks, containers and production lines. Soluble water is strong and with the help of detergent, acidic and play can solve and eliminate many of the contaminants. The use of industrial sweetener in the production line of these factories improves the efficiency of washing due to reduced salinity. Water is used as an essential ingredient in many food industries such as dairy, biscuits and chocolate. The higher the water entering the production cycle, the salinity, or the TDS, and the lower electrical conductivity, will increase the final quality of the food. Therefore, the use of industrial water purification in these factories is essential.
The use of water in the thermal and refrigeration industry is very common due to the high thermal water capacity. Water is used as the main fluid in steam boilers, cooling towers, heat exchangers and condensers. In the presence of salinity and hardness in water, the possibility of corrosion of the facility or precipitation on the surface of the pipe and heat exchangers is greatly increased. Therefore, using a water treatment plant can save considerable costs on plant maintenance.
Other uses of water can be used as a strong solvent. As an example, in the process of extraction of iron ore after grinding, water is used as a solvent, which is obtained after several stages of pure iron, and water and waste products are separated from the production cycle. The use of industrial water purification, in addition to increasing the purity of iron, increases the process efficiency and results in the least deposition and corrosion.
Sewage and industrial effluent discharges into all water sources, causing the loss of many water supplies used for drinking. In this situation, using water treatment methods can eliminate contamination, salinity and water hardness.
The agricultural industry is the largest consumer of water in our country. So far as some estimates suggest, the share of this industry is estimated at 10% of total consumption. In addition to discussing the quantity of water consumed in this industry, today the cultivation of various types of flowers and greenhouses has become commonplace. In these crops, water salinity and salts cause irrigation systems, as well as reduced productivity. In this regard, the use of industrial water purification is a solution to the problem.
In the animal husbandry industry, such as cattle breeding, poultry breeding, fish farming and fisheries, the problem of salinity and water pollution has led to the use of industrial water purification. The important issue with regard to the high water consumption in these industries is the cost-effectiveness of the price of the industrial water purifier.
The pharmaceutical industry and pharmaceutical industry are widely used by industrial water purification plants because of the highest sensitivity to pollution and salinity of water. Industrial water treatment is used in the pharmaceutical industry to produce distilled water or water without ion. Reverse Osmosis (RO) with double reverse osmosis, distilled water dispenser (DRO), as well as reverse osmosis and ion exchange in this industry.